Togther dating in nh

Note that the particular node to which many characters, particularly the more cryptic ones, should be assigned is unclear. Stems lacking vessels; (styloids ); cuticular waxes as aggregated rodlets; leaf with distinct sheath; inflorescence densely spicate, (staminate and carpellate part adjacent); P 0; staminate flowers: A connate; (pollen in tetrads, tetrads acalymmate, cohesion simple); carpellate flowers: pedicels with long hairs; G stipitate; fruit an achene with a little operculum; endosperm also with oil. Temperate and tropical regions worldwide (map: see Hultén 1962; Meusel et al.

togther dating in nh-63togther dating in nh-72

[LILIALES [ASPARAGALES COMMELINIDS]]: (inflorescence branches cymose); protandry common. (2015: Table S2); other ages are around 142 m.y., the highest, in Paterson et al.

[ASPARAGALES COMMELINIDS]: style long; whole nuclear genome duplication [τ/tau event].

COMMELINIDS Unlignified cell walls with ferulic acid ester-linked to xylans [fluorescing blue under UV, green with NH bodies , in leaf bundle sheaths; stomata para- or tetracytic, (cuticular waxes as aggregated rodlets [looking like a scallop of butter]); inflorescence branches determinate, peduncle bracteate; P = K C, bicyclic [stamens adnate to/inside corolla/inner whorl only]; pollen starchy; embryo short, broad. (Janssen & Bremer 2004) and there are similar ages of ca 86.8 m.y.

[POALES [COMMELINALES ZINGIBERALES]]: primary and secondary cell walls mostly with (glucurono)arabinoxylans; stomata subsidiary cells with parallel cell divisions; endosperm reserves starchy.

[NYMPHAEALES [AUSTROBAILEYALES CHLORANTHALES MAGNOLIIDS] [MONOCOTS [CERATOPHYLLALES EUDICOTS]]]: wood fibres ; axial parenchyma diffuse or diffuse-in-aggregates; pollen monosulcate [anasulcate], tectum reticulate-perforate [here? genome duplication; "DEAER" motif in AP3 and PI genes lost, gaps in these genes. Presl, Eriocaulales Nakai, ciliariales Reveal & Doweld, Juncales Berchtold & J.

[AUSTROBAILEYALES CHLORANTHALES MAGNOLIIDS] [MONOCOTS [CERATOPHYLLALES EUDICOTS: phloem loading passive, via symplast, plasmodesmata numerous; vessel elements with scalariform perforation plates in primary xylem; essential oils in specialized cells [lamina and P ± pellucid-punctate]; tension wood [reaction wood: with gelatinous fibres, G-fibres, on adaxial side of branch/stem junction]; anther wall with outer secondary parietal cell layer dividing; tectum reticulate; nucellar cap [character lost where in eudicots? DIOSCOREALES PANDANALES] [LILIALES [ASPARAGALES COMMELINIDS] / MESANGIOSPERMAE: benzylisoquinoline alkaloids ; sesquiterpene synthase subfamily a [TPS-a] [? level]; outer epidermal walls of root elongation zone with cellulose fibrils oriented transverse to root axis; P more or less whorled, 3-merous [? Presl, Mayacales Nakai, Rapateales Reveal & Doweld, Restionales Berchtold & J. Presl, Xyridales Lindley : stomatal subsidiary cells with oblique divisions; leaf without distinct sheath; endosperm helobial, cell wall formation in small chalazal chamber before that in large micropylar chamber; three-nucleotide deletion in the atp A gene. The divergence date of these two families is about 75.9 m.y.a. [ALISMATALES [PETROSAVIALES DIOSCOREALES PANDANALES] [LILIALES [ASPARAGALES COMMELINIDS]]]: ethereal oils 0; (trichoblasts in vertical files, proximal cell smaller); raphides (druses 0); leaf blade vernation supervolute-curved or variants, (margins with teeth, teeth spiny); endothecium develops directly from undivided outer secondary parietal cells; tectum reticulate with finer sculpture at the ends of the grain, endexine 0; (septal nectaries ) [intercarpellary fusion postgenital]. [PETROSAVIALES CHLORANTHALES MAGNOLIIDS] [MONOCOTS [CERATOPHYLLALES EUDICOTS]]: cyanogenic glycosides uncommon; starch grains simple, amylophobic; leaf blade developing basipetally from hyperphyll/hypophyll junction; epidermis with bulliform cells [? All groups below are crown groups, nearly all are extant. Aphids do not probe such cells, rather, they prefer the thinner walled "normal" sieve tubes which have more concentrated sugars (Botha 2013). 2014b), although these relationships are not always obtained (Givnish et al. Bromeliaceae and Typhaceae are also often placed as successive basal branches with respect to other Poales (Givnish et al. Collinson and van Bergen (2004) found similar chemical signatures in fruits of extant and fossil representatives of both genera. Emergent (floating) aquatic; stomatal subsidiary cells with intersecting oblique divisions; inflorescence as globose heads; P 1-6, when 3, median member adaxial; staminate flowers: anthers extrorse-latrorse; pollen mixed with raphides; carpellate flowers: , stigma papillate; fruit a spongy drupe, with micropylar plug, P persistent; testa membranous; perisperm with oil; phanomer [unifacial, ± assimilating], hypophyll quite well developed. Characters mentioned are those of the immediate common ancestor of the group, [] contains explanatory material, () features common in clade, exact status unclear. The distribution of these distinctive sieve tubes is unclear. 2005, 2008 [but rooting], 2010b: quite strong support, 2016b; also Graham et al. Within remaining Poales there are some well-supported clades, the Xyridaceae, Juncaceae, and Poaceae groups, although the exact composition of the first clade in particular remains somewhat unclear. level]; stomata anomocytic, (cuticular waxes as parallel platelets); colleters 0. (Magallón & Castillo 2009), (124-)117(-108) (Givnish et al.

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[AUSTROBAILEYALES CHLORANTHALES MAGNOLIIDS] [MONOCOTS [CERATOPHYLLALES EUDICOTS]]: phloem loading passive, via symplast, plasmodesmata numerous; vessel elements with scalariform perforation plates in primary xylem; essential oils in specialized cells [lamina and P ± pellucid-punctate]; tension wood [reaction wood: with gelatinous fibres, G-fibres, on adaxial side of branch/stem junction]; anther wall with outer secondary parietal cell layer dividing; tectum reticulate; nucellar cap [character lost where in eudicots? DIOSCOREALES PANDANALES] [LILIALES [ASPARAGALES COMMELINIDS] / MESANGIOSPERMAE: benzylisoquinoline alkaloids ; sesquiterpene synthase subfamily a [TPS-a] [? level]; outer epidermal walls of root elongation zone with cellulose fibrils oriented transverse to root axis; P more or less whorled, 3-merous [? Presl, Mayacales Nakai, Rapateales Reveal & Doweld, Restionales Berchtold & J. Presl, Xyridales Lindley : stomatal subsidiary cells with oblique divisions; leaf without distinct sheath; endosperm helobial, cell wall formation in small chalazal chamber before that in large micropylar chamber; three-nucleotide deletion in the atp A gene. The divergence date of these two families is about 75.9 m.y.a.

[ALISMATALES [PETROSAVIALES DIOSCOREALES PANDANALES] [LILIALES [ASPARAGALES COMMELINIDS]]]: ethereal oils 0; (trichoblasts in vertical files, proximal cell smaller); raphides (druses 0); leaf blade vernation supervolute-curved or variants, (margins with teeth, teeth spiny); endothecium develops directly from undivided outer secondary parietal cells; tectum reticulate with finer sculpture at the ends of the grain, endexine 0; (septal nectaries ) [intercarpellary fusion postgenital].

[PETROSAVIALES CHLORANTHALES MAGNOLIIDS] [MONOCOTS [CERATOPHYLLALES EUDICOTS]]: cyanogenic glycosides uncommon; starch grains simple, amylophobic; leaf blade developing basipetally from hyperphyll/hypophyll junction; epidermis with bulliform cells [?

All groups below are crown groups, nearly all are extant. Aphids do not probe such cells, rather, they prefer the thinner walled "normal" sieve tubes which have more concentrated sugars (Botha 2013). 2014b), although these relationships are not always obtained (Givnish et al. Bromeliaceae and Typhaceae are also often placed as successive basal branches with respect to other Poales (Givnish et al. Collinson and van Bergen (2004) found similar chemical signatures in fruits of extant and fossil representatives of both genera. Emergent (floating) aquatic; stomatal subsidiary cells with intersecting oblique divisions; inflorescence as globose heads; P 1-6, when 3, median member adaxial; staminate flowers: anthers extrorse-latrorse; pollen mixed with raphides; carpellate flowers: , stigma papillate; fruit a spongy drupe, with micropylar plug, P persistent; testa membranous; perisperm with oil; phanomer [unifacial, ± assimilating], hypophyll quite well developed.

Characters mentioned are those of the immediate common ancestor of the group, [] contains explanatory material, () features common in clade, exact status unclear. The distribution of these distinctive sieve tubes is unclear. 2005, 2008 [but rooting], 2010b: quite strong support, 2016b; also Graham et al. Within remaining Poales there are some well-supported clades, the Xyridaceae, Juncaceae, and Poaceae groups, although the exact composition of the first clade in particular remains somewhat unclear.

level]; stomata anomocytic, (cuticular waxes as parallel platelets); colleters 0. (Magallón & Castillo 2009), (124-)117(-108) (Givnish et al.

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[AUSTROBAILEYALES CHLORANTHALES MAGNOLIIDS] [MONOCOTS [CERATOPHYLLALES EUDICOTS]]: phloem loading passive, via symplast, plasmodesmata numerous; vessel elements with scalariform perforation plates in primary xylem; essential oils in specialized cells [lamina and P ± pellucid-punctate]; tension wood [reaction wood: with gelatinous fibres, G-fibres, on adaxial side of branch/stem junction]; anther wall with outer secondary parietal cell layer dividing; tectum reticulate; nucellar cap [character lost where in eudicots? DIOSCOREALES PANDANALES] [LILIALES [ASPARAGALES COMMELINIDS] / MESANGIOSPERMAE: benzylisoquinoline alkaloids ; sesquiterpene synthase subfamily a [TPS-a] [? level]; outer epidermal walls of root elongation zone with cellulose fibrils oriented transverse to root axis; P more or less whorled, 3-merous [? Presl, Mayacales Nakai, Rapateales Reveal & Doweld, Restionales Berchtold & J. Presl, Xyridales Lindley : stomatal subsidiary cells with oblique divisions; leaf without distinct sheath; endosperm helobial, cell wall formation in small chalazal chamber before that in large micropylar chamber; three-nucleotide deletion in the atp A gene. The divergence date of these two families is about 75.9 m.y.a.

[ALISMATALES [PETROSAVIALES DIOSCOREALES PANDANALES] [LILIALES [ASPARAGALES COMMELINIDS]]]: ethereal oils 0; (trichoblasts in vertical files, proximal cell smaller); raphides (druses 0); leaf blade vernation supervolute-curved or variants, (margins with teeth, teeth spiny); endothecium develops directly from undivided outer secondary parietal cells; tectum reticulate with finer sculpture at the ends of the grain, endexine 0; (septal nectaries ) [intercarpellary fusion postgenital].

[PETROSAVIALES DIOSCOREALES PANDANALES] [LILIALES [ASPARAGALES COMMELINIDS]]: cyanogenic glycosides uncommon; starch grains simple, amylophobic; leaf blade developing basipetally from hyperphyll/hypophyll junction; epidermis with bulliform cells [?

All groups below are crown groups, nearly all are extant. Aphids do not probe such cells, rather, they prefer the thinner walled "normal" sieve tubes which have more concentrated sugars (Botha 2013). 2014b), although these relationships are not always obtained (Givnish et al. Bromeliaceae and Typhaceae are also often placed as successive basal branches with respect to other Poales (Givnish et al. Collinson and van Bergen (2004) found similar chemical signatures in fruits of extant and fossil representatives of both genera. Emergent (floating) aquatic; stomatal subsidiary cells with intersecting oblique divisions; inflorescence as globose heads; P 1-6, when 3, median member adaxial; staminate flowers: anthers extrorse-latrorse; pollen mixed with raphides; carpellate flowers: , stigma papillate; fruit a spongy drupe, with micropylar plug, P persistent; testa membranous; perisperm with oil; phanomer [unifacial, ± assimilating], hypophyll quite well developed.

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